Academic Research

As part of our commitment to providing science-driven climate risk analytics that inform investments in resilience, Four Twenty Seven values the academic community’s work exploring the changing climate and its economic and financial impacts. We value collaboration with academic stakeholders, and contribute to these efforts through authoring peer-reviewed articles and book chapters as well as by providing our climate risk data for researchers studying these topics. This page highlights our publications and ongoing collaborations with researchers. If you are interested in collaborating please contact our Director, Communications, Natalie Ambrosio Preudhomme.

Peer-reviewed Publications

Ambrosio, N., Kim, Y. H., Swann, S., & Wang, Z. (2020). Addressing Climate Risk in Financial Decision Making. In Optimizing Community Infrastructure (pp. 123-142). Butterworth-Heinemann.

The book, Optimizing Community Infrastructure: Resilience in the Face of Shocks and Stresses, examines the multiple dimensions of infrastructure that underpin resilient societies. Four Twenty Seven co-wrote a chapter with Climate Finance Advisors, called “Chapter 7 – Addressing Climate Risk in Financial Decision Making.” The chapter examines how physical climate risks can impact infrastructure assets throughout their life cycle and ways in which investors and leading institutions can identify and manage physical climate risks in infrastructure assets. Read the book.

Ambrosio, N and Kim, Y.H. (2019). Community Resilience and Adaptive Capacity: A Meaningful Investment Across Assets. In Strategies to Address Climate Change Risk in Low- and Moderate-income Communities – Volume 14, Issue 1. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco published a set of articles about the impacts of climate change on communities and the economic implications of these risks. Four Twenty Seven contributed a piece titled “Community Resilience and Adaptive Capacity: A Meaningful Investment Across Assets.” It discusses the connection between community resilience and asset-level resilience, describing a methodology for investors to understand and promote community adaptive capacity. Read the collection.

Steinberg, Nik C. et al. (2018). Preparing Public Health Officials for Climate Change: A Decision Support Tool. California 4th Climate Change Assessment. Funded by the California Department of Natural Resources Agency.

California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment included research on the impacts of climate change across the state to support resilience-building. As part of the assessment, Four Twenty Seven contributed the report, “Preparing Public Health Officials for Climate Change: A Decision Support Tool” and developed the California Heat Assessment Tool (CHAT) based on research that establishes local, health-based thresholds for extreme heat that help public officials, health professionals and residents understand what changing conditions mean for them.  Read California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment Reports.

Steinberg, Nik C. (2016) The Sustainability Blindspot: A Method to Identifying Climate Risk in Global Supply Chains in Implementing Triple Bottom Line Sustainability into Global Supply Chains. GreenLeaf Publishing, Oxford, U.K. Print.

The book, Implementing Triple Bottom Line Sustainability, shares research and case studies focused on integrating social, ecological and economic sustainability into global supply chains. Four Twenty Seven’s Director Analytics, Nik Steinberg, contributed a chapter called “The Sustainability Blindspot: Identifying and Managing Climate Risk in Global Supply Chains.” The chapter explains how addressing climate risks in supply chains can go hand-in-hand with business-led climate risk reduction in communities, and provides strategies for identifying risks and prioritizing community engagement. Read the book.

Academic Partners

Dr. Robert Engle, Stern School of Business, New York University

Dr. Robert Engle’s research at the Volatility and Risk Institute focused on building portfolios that may hedge against climate change exposure using climate news data. Over the past decade, the economic effects of climate change have become a salient issue for many investors. As a result, investors are increasingly looking for ways to use financial markets to hedge exposure to climate change by putting together portfolios that will pay off in states of the world with particularly bad climate outcomes.



Xia Li, Questrom School of Business, Boston University, 

Xia Li is a Ph.D candidate researching the impact of physical climate risks on firms’ adaptation strategies and their disclosed climate risks. Physical climate risks, such as heat stress, water stress, flooding, sea level rise, hurricane and typhoon caused by climate change, have been bringing impacts on firms across industries. Understanding whether and how firms adapt to climate change and respond to climate risks is extremely important. However, there are few studies on firms’ climate change adaptation strategies in management literature, and what causes firms to adapt to climate change is still unclear.



Dr. Nora Pankratz, University of California Los Angeles Luskin Center for Innovation

Dr. Pankratz researches how firms and investors respond to changing environments. Her work focuses on economic adaptation and the financial economics of climate change. Dr. Pankratz spent six months as a guest researcher at Four Twenty Seven.