Public Health System Resilience Scorecard

Climate change will continue to adversely affect public health by threatening sanitation, altering the distribution of vector-borne disease, increasing the need for effective heat wave responses, introducing new mental health challenges and more. To help cities understand their vulnerability to these impacts and build resilience, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) developed a Public Health System Resilience Addendum for its Disaster Resilience Scorecard for cities.

The addendum includes 24 questions, defining a 0-5 scale for practitioners to quantify their responses (see example below). The questions cover the integration of public health with each of UNISDR’s Ten Essentials for Making Cities Resilient: disaster governance, disaster scenarios, finances, land use and building codes, ecosystem services, institutional capacity, societal capacity, infrastructure resilience, disaster response, and disaster recovery.

By capturing all of the possible weak spots in the broader health system, the addendum is meant to be a tool for mainstreaming public health considerations into disaster risk reduction plans, rather than just serving as a one-time assessment.  Using this integrated approach can help city officials build resilience over time. Recent events like the power outage that led to eight deaths in a Florida nursing home after Hurricane Irma demonstrate the preventable nature of many public health disasters. Ensuring that critical facilities have backup power supplies and that potential hazards are effectively communicated are ways in which effective planning can mitigate loss. By understanding existing vulnerabilities and how these will worsen with climate change, officials can implement essential adaptation measures that will save lives.

Four Twenty Seven contributed to this addendum and has developed a methodology to assess climate risk exposure in U.S. cities and counties. We are continuing research on quantifying local resilience to climate impacts and supporting public health responses to climate change. The forthcoming California Heat Assessment Tool will provide public health officials with an interactive platform to understand the projected increase in extreme heat events in each California census tract, based on the sensitivity of the local populations. It will also show the distribution of frontline individuals, such as the elderly, to inform effective local heat responses. This free, user-friendly tool will be live in mid-August.

Lenders’ Guide for Considering Climate Risk in Infrastructure Investments

Climate change poses multifaceted physical risks for infrastructure investors, affecting revenue, maintenance costs, asset value and liability. According to the New Climate Economy report, global demand for new infrastructure investment could be  over US$90 trillion between 2015 and 2017. It is becoming increasingly clear that climate change must be considered in all infrastructure investment and construction.

Four Twenty Seven, in collaboration with our partners Acclimatise and Climate Finance Advisers, published a “Lenders’ Guide for Considering Climate Risk in Infrastructure Investments” to explain the ways in which physical climate risks might affect key financial aspects of prospective infrastructure investments.

Climate Change and Infrastructure

The guide begins with a discussion of climate risk, acknowledging that climate change can also open opportunities such as improving resource efficiency, building resilience and developing new products. It provides a framework for questioning how revenues, costs, and assets can be linked to potential project vulnerability arising from climate hazards.

Revenues: Climate change can cause operational disruptions that lead to a decrease in business activities and thus decreased revenue. For example, higher temperatures alter airplanes’ aerodynamic performance and lead to a need for longer runways. In the face of consistently higher temperatures, airlines may seek airports with longer runways, shifting revenue from those that cannot provide the necessary facilities.

Costs/Expenditures: Extreme weather events can cause service disruptions, but can also damage infrastructure, requiring additional unplanned repair costs. For example, storms often lead to downed power lines which disrupts services but also necessitates that companies spend time and money to return the power lines to operating conditions.

Assets: Physical climate impacts can decrease value of tangible assets by damaging infrastructure and potentially shortening its lifetime. Intangible assets can be negatively impacted by damages to brand image and reputation through repeated service disruptions.

Liabilities: Climate change is likely to pose increasing liability risk as disclosure and preparation requirements become more widespread. As infrastructure is damaged and regulations evolve, companies may face increased insurance premiums and costs associated with retrofitting infrastructure and ensuring compliance.

Capital and Financing: As expenditures increase in the face of extreme weather events, debt is also likely to increase. Likewise, as operations and revenues are impacted and asset values decrease, capital raising may become more difficult.

The guide also draws attention to the potential opportunities emerging from resilience-oriented investments in infrastructure. There are both physical and financial strategies that can be leveraged to manage climate-related risks, such as replacing copper cables with more resilient fiber-optic ones and creating larger debt service and maintenance reserves.

Climate Risks and Opportunities: Sub-Sector Snapshots

The guide includes ten illustrative “snapshots” describing climate change considerations in the example sub-industries of Gas and Oil Transport and Storage; Power Transmission and Distribution; Wind-Based Power Distribution; Telecommunications; Data Centers; Commercial Real Estate; Healthcare; and Sport and Entertainment. Each snapshot includes a description of the sub-sector, an estimation of its global potential market, examples of observed impacts on specific assets, and potential financial impacts from six climate-related hazards: temperature, sea-level rise, precipitation & flood, storms, drought and water stress.

Commercial real-estate, for example, refers to properties used only for business purposes and includes office spaces, restaurants, hotels, stores, gas stations and others. By 2030 this market is expected to exceed US $1 trillion per annum compared to $450 billion per annum in 2012. Climate impacts for this sub-sector include hazard-specific risks and also include the general risk factor of climate-driven migration which drives shifts in supply and demand in the real estate market.

As heat waves increase in frequency, people will likely seek refuge in cool public buildings, leading to increasing property values for those places such as shopping malls that provide air-conditioned spaces for community members. Increasing frequency and intensity of storms may damage commercial infrastructure, leading to recovery costs and increased insurance costs. Real estate managers may have to make additional investments in water treatment facilities to ensure the viability of their assets in regions faced with decreased water availability. An example of the financial impacts of climate change on this sub-sector can be seen in Houston after Hurricane Harvey. After the hurricane hit Texas in August 2017, approximately 27% of Houston commercial real estate was impacted by flooding and these 12,000 properties were worth about US$55 billion.

Download the Lenders’ Guide. 

For more guidance on investing for resilience, read the Planning and Investing for a Resilient California guidance document and the GARI Investor Guide to Physical Climate Risk and Resilience.

Planning and Investing for a Resilient California – Guidance Document

Climate change impacts are already being felt in California and will continue to affect populations, infrastructure and businesses in the coming years. A resilient California is a state with strong infrastructure, communities and natural systems that can withstand increasingly volatile conditions. Executive Order B-30-15, signed by Gov. Brown in April 2015,  mandates that all state agencies must consider climate change and that they must receive guidance on how to effectively do so.

To support the implementation of this Executive Order, the California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research released last week “Planning and Investing for a Resilient California,” a guidance document outlining strategies to include climate adaptation in decision-making. Four Twenty Seven CEO Emilie Mazzacurati served on the Technical Advisory Group that wrote the report, which aims to provide guidance for state agencies to both plan for future climate conditions and also conduct planning itself in a new way.

The guide outlines four steps for integrating climate into decisions and then looks specifically at investing in resilient infrastructure, providing actionable guidelines for building a resilient California.

Four Steps to Planning for Resilience

1. Characterize climate risk

  • Determine the scale and scope of climate risk, ranking it as low, moderate or high impact.
  • Identify the vulnerability of impacted communities and systems, ranking them as adaptable, moderately adaptable or vulnerable.
  • Define the nature of the risk,  ranking it as temporary, limiting or permanent.
  • Identify the economic impacts of the risk, ranking them as low, medium or high.

2. Analyze climate risk

  • Determine which emissions scenario (RCP) to plan for: the higher the risk identified in step 1, the higher the necessary RCP scenario.
  • Determine complexity of uncertainty analysis needed: the higher the risk, the more important the uncertainty analysis.
  • If a project is in a current coastal zone, or a location that will be coastal by 2050 or 2100, planning must account for sea level rise.
  • Worst case scenarios should be identified for reference, but don’t need to be planned for.
  • Cal-Adapt is an interactive online tool, displaying climate impacts by hazard, with downloadable downscaled data.

3. Make climate-informed decisions, by using resilient design guidelines

  • Prioritize approaches that integrate adaptation and mitigation.
  • Prioritize actions that promote equity and community resilience.
  • Coordinate with local and regional agencies, including governments and community based organizations.
  • Prioritize actions that use natural infrastructure.
  • Base all choices on the best science.

4. Track and Monitor Progress

  • Develop metrics and report regularly to foster transparency and accountability.

Case Study: California Water Plan 2013

Several state agencies are already integrating climate change into their planning. The Department of Water Resources used a scenarios approach to capture uncertainty in climate, but also in demographics, economic change and land use. Examining 22 different climate scenarios, analyzing different temperature and precipitation possibilities and accounting for growth uncertainty, the agency looked at 198 possible futures. This allowed them to examine different possible management approaches and how they may reduce certain vulnerabilities. This quantitative estimate provided a range of future conditions and possible strategies for the agency to consider in its planning.

Infrastructure Investment

The state of California invests in infrastructure through funding of onsite renewable energy and telecommunications, providing financial assistance to projects not owned by the state and providing capital for all steps of infrastructure development owned by the state. Regardless of the type of investment, climate change impacts must be considered. It’s important to first determine if there is a way to accomplish a goal by using natural infrastructure. Assessing the potential for natural infrastructure can be done by examining the landscape, exploring Cal-Adapt’s projections for the area, analyzing potential co-benefits such as improved ecological services or water health and consulting with other groups. It’s important to compare the risk reduction and complete costs and benefits of the natural infrastructure approach with the non-natural alternative. Using full life-cycle accounting, that considers all of the costs from a project including building, operating, maintaining and also deconstructing, is essential for evaluating proposed projects. Prioritizing infrastructure with climate benefits and integrating the resilient decision making principles will ensure that investments are resilient and climate-conscious.

Download the full report.

This guidance document is a continuation of California’s ongoing leadership in climate adaptation, which includes Senate Bill No. 379 Land Use: General Plan: Safety Element, passed in 2015. This bill mandates that every city must include adaptation and resilience strategies in General Plan Safety Elements and Local Hazard Mitigation Plans by 2017. Read about Four Twenty Seven’s work helping cities in Alameda County implement these requirements and learn about our advisory services for adaptation planning, policy consulting and vulnerability assessments.




Newsletter: Climate Risk in Financial Portfolios, COP23 and Workforce Adaptation

Four Twenty Seven’s monthly newsletter highlights recent developments in climate adaptation and resilience. This month, don’t miss our white paper on physical climate risk in equity portfolios, French President Macron’s op-ed on climate finance, and our policy recommendations on protecting workers from climate health impacts. Also, be sure to check out our new website!

In Focus: Physical Risk in Financial Portfolios

Figure 4. Extreme Precipitation Risk for Facilities from France’s Benchmark Index CAC40

Four Twenty Seven and Deutsche Asset Management jointly released today at COP23 a white paper featuring a new approach to climate risk management in equity portfolios. The white paper, Measuring Physical Climate Risk in Equity Portfolios, showcases Four Twenty Seven’s Equity Risk Scoring methodology, which identifies hotspots in investment portfolios by assessing the geographic exposure of publicly-traded companies to climate change. Our methodology tackles physical risk head on by identifying the locations of corporate sites around the world and then the vulnerability of these corporate production and retail sites to climate change, such as sea level rise, droughts, flooding and tropical storms, which pose an immediate threat to investment portfolios.

Deutsche Asset Management is leveraging Four Twenty Seven’s Equity Risk Scores to satisfy institutional investors’ growing desire for more climate resilient portfolios and design new investment strategies. “This report is a major step forward to addressing a serious and growing risk that investors face. To keep advancing our efforts, we believe the investment industry needs to champion the disclosure of once-in-a-lifetime climate risks by companies so we can assess these risks even more accurately going forward,” said Nicolas Moreau, Head of Deutsche Asset Management.

Read the white paper

France on the Forefront of Climate Finance

French President Emmanuel Macron emphasizes his support for the Taskforce on Climate Related Financial Disclosure’s (TCFD) recommendations in an op-ed published on Global Markets. Macron also highlighted the importance of climate finance mechanisms, such as green bonds, and the need for private participation in financing climate action.


France has been heralded as a global leader on climate risk disclosure with the passage of the Energy Transition Law, including Article 173, which includes a requirement for financial institutions to disclose their exposure to physical climate risk. Four Twenty Seven is working with French public pension funds and screening equity portfolios to support reporting efforts in compliance with Art. 173.

Adaptation: Safeguarding Worker Health & Safety

Four Twenty Seven co-authored an article titled “Safeguarding Worker Health and Safety from a Changing Climate: Delaware’s Climate-Ready Workforce Pilot Project,” with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. Through interviews, surveys, and policy analysis assessing the climate resilience of existing worker health and safety policies, the authors examine the preparedness of five state agencies for climate impacts. The article highlights particular risks faced by vulnerable workers and offers policy recommendations for enhancing resilience to ensure the safety and well-being of agency staff.

Visit our website for a detailed presentation on the Delaware Climate-Ready Workforce Pilot Project, the summary report, and more information about our adaptation planning and policy consulting.

International Climate Policy in the Spotlight

Four Twenty Seven’s Director of Analytics, Nik Steinberg’s panels at COP23

Measuring Progress on Climate Adaptation and Resilience: From Concepts to Practical Applications
Nov. 7, 3:00 – 4:30pm, Meeting Room 7 (150)Director of Analytics, Nik Steinberg will join a panel of experts discussing adaptation measurement, focusing on indicators and metrics to inform and assess resilience efforts. This side event will be hosted by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), McGill University and the University of Notre Dame.

Resilience as a Business: How the Private Sector Can Turn Climate Risk into Business and Investment  Nov. 10, 5:30 – 8:00pm, Hilton Bonn

Bringing together corporate stakeholders and private investors, this event will explore the private sector’s pivotal role in mainstreaming adaptation and driving the resilience agenda.

Speakers include: Representative from Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry of Japan; Mari Yoshitaka from Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co. Ltd.; Jay Koh from Lightsmith Group and GARI;  Nik Steinberg from Four Twenty Seven; and Amal-Lee Amin from Inter-American Development Bank. For more information contact

Tool: Monitoring Progress on the Paris Agreement

This interactive new platform developed by the The World Resources Institute combines climate policy data with interactive graphics to help analysts and policy makers stay up to date on nationally determined contributions (NDCs), greenhouse gas emissions by sector and more. Climate Watch allows users to sort data based on various indicators, examine connections between NDCs and Sustainable Development Goals, and dive into data on specific nations.

Inside the Office: What’s New at Four Twenty Seven

We Have a New Website!

With streamlined navigation and updated visuals, our new website brings our story alive and allows for a more engaging user experience.
Visit the Solutions page to explore our advisory services and subscription products, including Equity Risk Scores, Portfolio Analytics and Real Asset Screening.
Check out the Insights section for our perspectives on climate resilience, climate risk reporting, adaptation finance, climate science and recent events.

Meet Pete Dickson, Director of Business Development

Four Twenty Seven is proud to announce the addition of Pete Dickson to our team. As the Director of Business Development, Pete is responsible for driving growth for our subscription products, with a focus on financial institutions.
Pete brings more than 20 years of experience in institutional sales, trading, and business development. He’s worked with both the buy-side and sell-side to develop and execute business plans and build revenue, products, and services. Pete has worked with some of the largest financial services and asset management firms in the US and abroad.

Upcoming Events

Join the Four Twenty Seven team in the field at these upcoming events:

  • November 7-17  COP23, Bonn, Germany: Join Director of Analytics Nik Steinberg at side events at the UNFCCC’s 23rd Conference of Parties (See above for details).
  • November 12-15  Airports Going Green, Dallas, TX: Director of Advisory Services Yoon Hui Kim will present on corporate climate resilience planning for airports and transportation infrastructure.
  • November 16-17 Berkeley Sustainable Business and Investment Forum, Berkeley, CA: COO Colin Shaw will attend this event sponsored by the Berkeley-Haas Center for Responsible Business and the Berkeley Law School
  • November 30 Roundtable: Investing with Impact, San Francisco, CA: CEO Emilie Mazzacurati will speak at a roundtable organized by Deutsche Asset Management about the use of ESG data in portfolio investing (by invitation).
  • December 6-7  RI Americas 2017, New York, NY: CEO Emilie Mazzacurati will present on Physical Climate Risk in Equity Portfolios (Wednesday Dec 6 at 2pm) and meet with Colin Shaw, Pete Dickson and Katy Maher at the Four Twenty Seven booth.
  • December 11  Climate Finance Day, Paris, France: CEO Emilie Mazzacurati will join this high profile event sponsored by the French Ministry for the Economy and Finance.
  • December 11-15  AGU Fall Meeting, New Orleans, LA: Climate Data Analyst Colin Gannon will join the Earth and Space Science community to present a poster on climate modeling.







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Delaware’s Climate-Ready Workforce Pilot Project

Changing climate conditions threaten the health and safety of the State of Delaware’s most important assets: its workforce. Building on momentum at the state level to assess climate risks and implement relevant adaptation actions, Four Twenty Seven worked with five state agencies to identify and protect at-risk workers from the impacts of extreme events such as storms, floods, and high temperatures. Based on an evaluation of existing policies, key informant interviews, and surveys, Four Twenty Seven provided recommendations to more explicitly incorporate climate considerations, share agency good practices, and strengthen the fundamentals of current policies and procedures by improving processes for policy development, implementation, and enforcement. The findings from this project will be used to inform state agencies’ consideration of next steps with regard to health, safety and climate change.

Download the summary report

View the Delaware Climate-Ready Workforce Presentation


Newsletter: Climate Implications of Trump, Extreme Heat and the TCFD



TCFD to Release Final Report This Week

The FSB Task force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) will release its final report this week, on Thursday June 29. The report will be presented to the G20 in Italy on July 7-8. While it is uncertain whether the G20 will formally endorse the report given the Trump administration’s stance on climate change, the ripples from the report in transforming how financial markets view and think about climate risk are already being felt, and with or without further formal regulations, we expect investors will continue their call for greater transparency on climate risk and concrete strategies on decarbonization and adaptation. The public consultation conducted this spring showed the draft recommendations were generally well received by corporations and financial institutions alike. An average 75% of respondents found the recommendations useful, but non-financial corporations were unconvinced of the need for scenario planning whereas financial institutions were very supportive. Respondents were unanimous in calling for more detailed guidance and tools for the implementation of the recommendations, and the TCFD has now announced its work was extended through September 2018 to help support the implementation and dissemination of the recommendations.

More information on the TCFD, its recommendations and implications for corporations and investors:

Why BlackRock is Worried about Climate Change: Investors and Systemic Risk to the Financial System

The Health Costs of Extreme Heat

Record-setting temperatures and deadly heat waves have dominated the news these past weeks. Earlier this month came reports of a historic heat wave covering Asia, the Middle East, and Europe with Turbat, Pakistan experiencing record temperatures of 128.3°F (53.5°C), marking it as the hottest temperature ever recorded in May as well as one of Earth’s top-five temperatures on record for any month.

A study released last week found that 30% of Earth’s population is experiencing deadly heat for more than 20 days a year, and unless actions are taken to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, climate change will result to close to 75% of the population exposed to deadly heat every year. Further proof comes from a new mapping tool released by Climate Impact Lab which takes data from NASA’s climate models to estimate how frequently a country will experience days of 95°F+ temperatures if emissions continue to rise through 2100. NOAA’s Climate Resilience Toolkit contains a wealth of information and tools on how to prepare for heat waves and health impacts of climate change in the U.S., including Four Twenty Seven’s Heat and Social Equity Tool, which combine projections from global climate models with socioeconomic indicators of heat vulnerability to compare the complex components of heat risk and resilience by county in the U.S. We also offer a tool to understand the impacts of extreme heat in India as part of the India Heat Impact Project.

The true risk of climate change is the inability to adapt to the changes it brings. Prepare for heat waves: by @427climaterisk

Trump and Paris: What Impacts on Climate?

The loss of the United States’ participation in the Paris Agreement is a blow to international climate efforts, though not fatal. In the wake of President Trump’s announcement to withdraw from the agreement, uncertainty has grown in the climate science and adaptation fields. Both domestically and internationally, leaders have reached out to form new coalitions for U.S. states, cities, and businesses to take the lead and continue pursuing what the nation had committed to as a whole. Read our analysis: Trump and Paris: What Impact on Climate?

Trump and Paris: What Impacts on Climate? via @427climaterisk

Audio Blog: Latest Innovations in ESG Investing

Investors are increasingly aware of options to invest responsibly, yet the myth persists that ESG investing sacrifices financial returns. At this year’s Sustainatopia conference held in San Francisco, Four Twenty Seven’s Director of Finance Colin Shaw joined a panel aiming to tackle the issue and present new ideas and tools for helping investors. Colin presented on measuring climate risk in financial portfolios, and the need for more climate data in order to better provide guidance to businesses for their risk management planning. Listen to the panel to learn new ways to steer investment towards sustainable solutions.

Meet the Team: Yvonne Burgess

Yvonne BurgessFour Twenty Seven is proud to welcome Yvonne Burgess to our team as Chief Systems Architect. Yvonne has extensive experience in information systems, project management, and software project management. As a Chief Systems Architect, Yvonne is leading the development of our data architecture, modeling and product road-map for a new generation of climate risk analytics products. Yvonne’s experience spans across startups, Fortune 500 corporations, and federal contracting work, blending deep technical expertise with strategic planning and thought leadership. Yvonne holds a Master of Science in Systems Management in organization development and information technology from the University of Southern California, as well as a Bachelor of Business Administration.

Upcoming Events

Join the Four Twenty Seven team in the field at these upcoming events:

  • July 26: GARI meeting, New York: Four Twenty Seven CEO Emilie Mazzacurati will join the Global Adaptation and Resilience Investment working group to discuss their forthcoming publication on climate risk in the financial sector.
  • August 24-25: California Climate Action Planning Conference, San Luis Obispo, CA: Climate Adaptation Senior Analyst, Kendall Starkman will discuss local and regional climate adaptation/mitigation planning.
  • September 18-24: Climate Week NYC 2017, New York, NY: Four Twenty Seven – details to be announced.
  • September 25-27: PRI in Person 2017, Berlin, Germany: Founder and CEO, Emilie Mazzacurati will present Four Twenty Seven’s work on financial climate risk and analytics to build resilient portfolios.

Four Twenty Seven Climate Solutions







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Newsletter: The New Normal



News and analysis on climate change adaptation.

Four Twenty Seven Climate Solutions

Planning for Heat Waves: Heat and Social Equity in the United States

With an extreme snowstorm headed to the East Coast ready to wipe out early shoots and buds from February’s record-breaking heat, increasing variability in weather events is on the minds of many. To help with preparations for future heat events and understand the new normal, Four Twenty Seven has developed a tool to understand how heat vulnerability is increasing in the United States. This series of maps combine projections from global climate models with socioeconomic indicators of heat vulnerability to compare the complex and interconnected components of heat risk and resilience by county.

The maps feature a composite “Heat Vulnerability Score” indicator, created by Four Twenty Seven and peer-reviewed by CDC and NOAA, to identify vulnerable areas at the county level. This free tool can be used to discuss climate change impacts on public health with doctors, nurses and other professionals in the healthcare sector, to bolster to community engagement and long-term adaptation planning and is now featured on NOAA’s Climate Resilience Toolkit.

Mapping Climate Vulnerability in Denver

Extreme heat associated with changing climate conditions are expected to present challenges to human health through impacts such as heat stress. Working with Denver’s Department of Environmental Health, Four Twenty Seven developed a heat and Health Vulnerability Index and Story Map to illustrate the spatial patterns of vulnerability to extreme heat within the City of Denver. The interactive story map will help policymakers and community groups determine which areas and communities are most vulnerable and assess how the built environment, demographic factors, and elements of human health contribute to neighborhood-level vulnerabilities.

The Denver Department of Environmental Health will use the index and Story Map to evaluate neighborhood vulnerabilities, highlight how to reduce risks to vulnerable populations, and facilitate the integration of health and vulnerable populations into climate change priorities.

Protecting Against Risk to Climate Data Itself 

Starting with the White House website, the Trump administration is in the process of editing page content for multiple federal departments and agencies to remove references to climate change. This dismissive attitude towards climate change  most recently culminated by new EPA administrator Scott Pruitt’s false assertion that CO2 is not a ‘primary contributor’ to global warming in his first address to the agency. The same week, the EPA’s Office of Science and Technology Policy removed “science” from its mission statement.
Fearing for the datasets that support climate policy, a coalition of scientists and researchers has organized to rescue data from government websites. In February, analysts from Four Twenty Seven joined nearly 200 Bay Area open-data activists in a DataRefuge event at UC Berkeley. As a part of the larger nation-wide effort, the Berkeley event focused on NASA and DOE data, flagging over 8000 related webpages and backing-up many critical datasets.

Hottest. Year. Ever.

NOAA reported that in 2016, the record for the global average surface temperature was broken again. The global average of 58.69°F was the highest since recording began in 1880, or 1.69°F above the 20th century average. It was also the third year in a row that the record has been broken, and fifth year since the start of the century. So far, 2017 is seeing a continuation of the global warming trend with record-breaking heat in many part of the United States in February. (Image courtesy of Climate Central)

California Heat & Health Project

California's Fourth Climate Change AssessmentAs part of California’s Fourth Climate Change Assessment, Four Twenty Seven is developing a tool to inform planning efforts to mitigate the public health impacts of extreme heat across the state.

In the first phase of this project, Four Twenty Seven conducted an extensive user needs assessment, summarized in a report, California Heat & Health Project: A Decision Support Tool. The report shows the challenges and limitations of emergency response to extreme heat, and finds that the greatest strides can be made through interventions planned well ahead of time, such as changes in the urban design and social programs. The tool will be released in the fall 2017.

Read the report: California Heat & Health Project: A Decision Support Tool

Webinar: Incorporating Climate Adaptation in Local Plans

March 29th at 10am PST

Register Today

Don’t miss the upcoming webinar discussing the requirements and timeline for the implementation of California’s Senate Bill 379, which calls on cities and counties to incorporate adaptation and resilience strategies into local hazard mitigation plans and the safety element of general plans. Director of Advisory Services Yoon Kim will join the panel to share replicable strategies and good practices from Four Twenty Seven’s work with six cities in Alameda County.

Upcoming Events

Join the Four Twenty Seven team in the field at these upcoming events:

  • March 29Webinar: Incorporating Climate Adaptation in Local Plans co-hosted with ARCCA. See above for details.
  • April 6-7: 6th Stranded Assets Forum, Waddesdon Manor, UK: Meet with CEO Emilie Mazzacurati to discuss the use of asset data to measure financial climate risk.
  • April 20: The ProAdapt Symposium, Washington, DC: Emilie Mazzacurati will join the symposium from the Inter-American Development Bank, “Climate Risk and Investment: Framing Private Challenges and Opportunities”.
  • April 20: UC Philomathia Forum, Berkeley, CA: Director of Finance Colin Shaw will join a panel on how startups are using data science to advance environmental sustainability.
  • April 26-27: Ceres Conference, San Francisco, CA: Meet Emilie Mazzacurati to learn more about Four Twenty Seven’s services for investors.
  • May 7-10Sustainatopia, San Francisco, CA: Emilie Mazzacurati will present on how investors approach the physical risks of climate change.
  • May 9-11: National Adaptation Forum, St. Paul, MN: Yoon Kim will present on a panel on Innovations in Adaptation Finance, and Aleka Seville will facilitate a pre-conference workshop to discuss findings on climate adaptation investing.
  • May 17-18: Women and the Environment, Santa Barbara, CA: Aleka Seville will present on the role of entrepreneurs in climate adaptation.
  • May 25: Silicon Valley Energy & Sustainability Summit, Redwood Shores, CA: Join Emilie Mazzacurati to discuss corporate climate risk and resilience strategies.







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Audio Blog: Climate Data & Public Health, Mobilizing Adaptation Action

Director of Advisory Services Yoon Kim moderated a panel at the 2017 National Conference and Global Forum for Science, Policy, and the Environment. The session, titled “Climate Data and Public Health: Mobilizing Adaptation Action”, explored the role of interactive data tools in the adaptation continuum – from diagnosis to planning to solutions – through concrete case studies. Presenters brought local public health and private sector hospital perspectives from across the United States. You can listen to a full recording of the panel here, and follow along with the presentation slides.


  • Cyndy Comerford, Manager of Policy and Planning, San Francisco Department of Public Health
  • Michele Shimomura, Public Health Manager, Denver Department of Environmental Health
  • James Evans, Sustainability Analyst, Cleveland Clinic
  • Deborah Weinstock, Director of the National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training, Michael D. Baker, Inc.
  • Jennifer de Mooy, Climate Adaptation Project Manager, Delaware Division of Energy and Climate

Newsletter: All Hands on Deck!



The Global Impacts of Droughts and Extreme Heat

From the Desk of Emilie

Better data. More efficient technology. New sources of financing. The recipe to address global impacts of climate change — such as drought, the focus of this month’s newsletter — is very much the same as in the U.S. But the needs are more pressing, and the ingredients even harder to find.

As I write from the ProAdapt conference in Cartagena, Colombia, I can’t help but notice how the discourse on the private sector has changed in the past years. Many government agencies, donors,  and NGOs now beat the drums of private sector resilience – for its own sake, and also as a critical provider of products and services to support community adaptation efforts.

Such products and services are still nascent,  but I’m confident this clear signal will help grow the market and spur innovation and investments. Fellow entrepreneurs and business folks: our ingenuity and resources are needed to build climate resilience. All hands on deck!

Emilie Mazzacurati, Founder and CEO

ProAdapt: The Challenge and Opportunity of Private Sector Climate Resilience

Emilie is at the Proadapt conference on The Challenge and Opportunity of Private Sector Climate Resilience in Cartagena de Indias, Columbia from May 25-27th. Emilie will join a panel discussion on A Strategic View of Private Climate Resilience. The panel will discuss evolving private awareness of climate risks and resilience in their sectors, changing business strategies and continuing barriers to private action on climate resilience. Emilie will highlight opportunities for the private sector to offer products and services that help bridge the adaptation gap and make the business case for responsible corporate adaptation.

Insights in Resilience: International Adaptation


“In the international arena, we’re currently seeing a shift from a focus on immediate adaptation needs to a more strategic, longer-term approach to adaptation planning.” Read our interview of Yoon Kim, Director of Advisory Services at Four Twenty Seven, about her work on international adaptation and for insights from her recent trip to the 2016 Adaptation Futures Conference in Rotterdam Netherlands.

Learn more about her work, and stay up to date with the latest in international adaptation.

Back from the (Adaptation) Futures

Yoon attended Adaptation Futures in Rotterdam from May 10th-13th. On May 10th, she spoke about Four Twenty Seven’s Resilient Hospitals tool on a panel about financing solutions to address the health risks of climate change organized by the World Bank. Yoon also co-presented a poster on the US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) approach to climate-resilient development and National Adaptation Plans. She and her co-authors provided an overview of how USAID’s approach has been applied through stakeholder workshops to catalyze National Adaptation Plan processes in Jamaica, Tanzania, and 11 coastal West African countries and summarized lessons learned to inform development and implementation of National Adaptation Plan processes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

What We’re Reading: Lancet Study connects Climate Change and  Disruption of Global Food Systems

Climate change is having a direct impact on the productivity of the world’s crops, and a new Oxford study warns that 500,000 lives are at risk by 2050 due to disruption of global food systems caused by the impacts climate change.

The report in The Lancet indicates that droughts, floods, and other climate-related impacts “will lead to per-person reductions of 2-3% in global food availability, 0-4% in fruit and vegetable consumption, and 0-7%  in red meat consumption. These changes will be associated with 529,000 climate-related deaths worldwide, representing a 28% reduction in the number of deaths that would be avoided because of changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors between 2010 and 2050.”

Read the Report or Washington Post Article

Better Data for a Better World:  Forecasting Drought

We are always on the lookout for climate data that represent advancements in observational data sets that can improve projections of the impacts of climate change, and we found one.

“The data set, called CHIRPS (short for “Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation With Station data”) blends data from weather stations and weather satellites with extraordinary accuracy, providing a detailed record of global rainfall stretching back more than 30 years.” The data is being used to project the impacts of extreme drought and improve resilience for those vulnerable to extreme heat caused by climate change.

More about CHIRPS from journalist Eric Holthaus

India’s drought migrants head to cities in desperate search for water

The links between extreme heat and climate change are becoming clear in India where drought is driving rural populations to cities in search of water.

In cities like Mumbai, which are already struggling to provide essential services to their already large populations influxes of climate migrants places additional stress on resources that are becoming more scarce due to climate change.

“The drought has affected 330 million people in India this year, according to government figures. About 15% of India’s gross domestic product comes from agriculture and 68% of the 1.3 billion population are farmers. With no water for irrigation, the drought has been devastating for farmers.”

Learn more about the impacts of drought in India.

Meet the Team: Claire Quiner, MPH

We are excited to announce the latest addition to our team: Claire Quiner. Claire joins as a senior analyst to support Four Twenty Seven’s growing climate health practice.

With a dual background in Public Health and Environmental Planning, Claire specializes in infectious diseases and brings six years of experience working in molecular virology. Her previous work investigated how viruses interact with their hosts (e.g. mosquitoes) and vectors to evolve. Through her research, she also collaborated with the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention on emerging infectious diseases, whose rise is related to global trends including climate change and urbanization. Her current point of interest is the interface of climate change and public health and what municipalities can do to prevent infectious diseases epidemics and other climate health emergencies.

Claire earned Masters degrees in Public Health-Epidemiology/Biostatistics as well as City and Regional Planning from the University of California-Berkeley in 2016 and Bachelor of Science in Biology from Alverno College, Milwaukee, WI in 2007.

Clevland Clinic and Four Twenty Seven win Verdantix Information Management Award

We are excited to announce that Cleveland Clinic and Four Twenty Seven were awarded one of the inaugural EH&S Information Management Awards at the Vendantix Summit 2016. Cleveland Clinic is one of nine health care networks across the US currently putting our Resilient Hospital Dashboard to use to inform their climate focused outreach and communications and to guide their resilience planning efforts.
See the Resilient Hospital Dashboard

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